European journal of biochemistry

Transport of the phosphonodipeptide alafosfalin by the H+/peptide cotransporters PEPT1 and PEPT2 in intestinal and renal epithelial cells.

PMID 15128310


The interaction of the antibacterial phosphonodipeptide alafosfalin with mammalian H(+)/peptide cotransporters was studied in Caco-2 cells, expressing the low-affinity intestinal type peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1), and SKPT cells, expressing the high-affinity renal type peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2). Alafosfalin strongly inhibited the uptake of [(14)C]glycylsarcosine with K(i) values of 0.19 +/- 0.01 mm and 0.07 +/- 0.01 mm for PEPT1 and PEPT2, respectively. Saturation kinetic studies revealed that in both cell types alafosfalin affected only the affinity constant (K(t)) but not the maximal velocity (V(max)) of glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar) uptake. The inhibition constants and the competitive nature of inhibition were confirmed in Dixon-type experiments. Caco-2 cells and SKPT cells were also cultured on permeable filters: apical uptake and transepithelial apical to basolateral flux of [(14)C]Gly-Sar across Caco-2 cell monolayers were reduced by alafosfalin (3 mm) by 73%. In SKPT cells, uptake of [(14)C]Gly-Sar but not flux was inhibited by 61%. We found no evidence for an inhibition of the basolateral to apical uptake or flux of [(14)C]Gly-Sar by alafosfalin. Alafosfalin (3 mm) did not affect the apical to basolateral [(14)C]mannitol flux. Determined in an Ussing-type experiment with Caco-2 cells cultured in Snapwells trade mark, alafosfalin increased the short-circuit current through Caco-2 cell monolayers. We conclude that alafosfalin interacts with both H(+)/peptide symporters and that alafosfalin is actively transported across the intestinal epithelium in a H(+)-symport, explaining its oral availability. The results also demonstrate that dipeptides where the C-terminal carboxyl group is substituted by a phosphonic function represent high-affinity substrates for mammalian H(+)/peptide cotransporters.

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L-Alanyl-L-1-aminoethylphosphonic acid, ≥98.0% (T)