Inhalation toxicology

Physical and chemical characterization of mn phosphate/sulfate mixture used in an inhalation toxicology study.

PMID 15204770


The use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) in unleaded gasoline has given rise to numerous debates on the potential public health risk associated with manganese emissions. In fact, combustion products are mainly Mn phosphate, Mn sulfate, and Mn phosphate/sulfate mixture. Our research group did several inhalation studies in order to assess the toxicity of each Mn species. The objective of this study is to determine the physical and the chemical characteristics of a mixture of Mn phosphate/sulfate used in one of these inhalation toxicology studies. First, the mixture was analyzed by X-ray diffraction in order to obtain the specific peak of Mn phosphate and Mn sulfate. These peaks were used as reference. Second, samples of the mixture were collected on filters in the inhalation chamber at a concentration level of 3000 microg/m(3). They were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM), and x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) to show their size, morphology, and chemical composition. Results indicate that 33% of the particles were found to be agglomerated, while free particles accounted for 44% for Mn phosphate and 23% for Mn sulfate.