British journal of haematology

Compound heterozygous mutations in the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase gene cause combined deficiency of all vitamin K-dependent blood coagulation factors.

PMID 15287948


Hereditary combined deficiency of the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors II, VII, IX, X, protein C, S and protein Z (VKCFD) is a very rare autosomal recessive inherited bleeding disorder. The phenotype may result from functional deficiency of either the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) or the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) complex. We report on the third case of VKCFD1 with mutations in the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase gene, which is remarkable because of compound heterozygosity. Two mutations were identified: a splice site mutation of exon 3 and a point mutation in exon 11, resulting in the replacement of arginine 485 by proline. Screening of 100 unrelated normal chromosomes by restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis excluded either mutation as a frequent polymorphism. Substitution of vitamin K could only partially normalize the levels of coagulation factors. It is suggested that the missense mutation affects either the propeptide binding site or the vitamin K binding site of GGCX.