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Journal of the American Chemical Society

A likely biogenetic gateway linking 2-aminoimidazolinone metabolites of sponges to proline: spontaneous oxidative conversion of the pyrrole-proline-guanidine pseudo-peptide to dispacamide A.


PMID 15315431

Abstract

A new spontaneous oxidative transformation of the associated pyrrole-proline-guanidine to the natural marine pyrrole 2-aminoimidazolinone derivative has been achieved. The sensitive reaction requires air oxygen and the N-acylation of proline by pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid. Proline metabolism and pyrrole 2-aminoimidazole secondary metabolites formation seem to be related and are utilized by sponges under stress conditions for their defense against predators. A plausible stress-induced oxidative chemical pathway that establishes dispacamide derivatives as the forerunners in the biogenetic synthesis of the key pyrrole 2-aminoimidazole oroidin is proposed. The mechanism of the reaction seems to be another development of the known luciferins' chemiluminescent reactions in bioluminescent marine organisms.

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