Environmental monitoring and assessment

1,1,1-trichloroethane marine risk assessment with special reference to the OSPARCOM region: North Sea.

PMID 15376378


This risk assessment on 1,1,1-trichloroethane was carried out specifically for the marine environment, accordingly to the methodology laid down in the EU risk assessment Regulation (1488/94) and the Guidance Document of the EU New and Existing Substances Regulation (TGD, 1996). 1,1,1-trichloroethane is being phased out of most uses because of its ozone depletion potential (ODP) under the Montreal Protocol. Production for emissive uses has already been phased out end 1995 in Europe and 1996 in the United States, Japan and other industrial countries. The risk assessment study consists of the collection and evaluation of data on effects and environmental concentrations from analytical monitoring programmes in large rivers and estuaries in the North Sea area. The risk is indicated by the ratio of the Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC) and the Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine aquatic environment. In total 14 studies for fish, 7 studies for invertebrates and 9 studies for algae have been evaluated. Both acute and chronic studies have been taken into account and the appropriate assessment factors have been used to calculate a PNEC value of 21 microg/l based on long term exposure. The PEC was derived from monitoring data. The PEC was set at 0.206 microg/l (worst case) and 0.024 microg/l (typical case) for coastal waters and estuaries and 0.6 microg/l (worst case) and <0.1 microg/l (typical case) for river waters. The calculated PEC/PNEC ratios, which do not take into account any dilution factor within the sea, correspond to a safety margin of 35 to 1000 between the aquatic effect and the exposure concentration. 1,1,1-trichloroethane is not a 'toxic, persistent and liable to bioaccumulate' substance according to the criteria as mentioned by the Oslo and Paris Conventions for the Prevention of Marine Pollution (OSPAR-DYNAMEC). It can be concluded that the present use of 1,1,1-trichloroethane does not present a risk to the marine aquatic environment.