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Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

Phototransformation of carboxin in water. Toxicity of the pesticide and its sulfoxide to aquatic organisms.


PMID 15453691

Abstract

Sunlight exposure of aqueous suspensions of carboxin (1) causes its phototransformation to sulfoxide 2 and minor components. Similar effects are observed in the presence of humic acid or nitrate or at different pH values. Photoproducts 2-9 were isolated by chromatographic techniques and/or identified by spectroscopic means. Carboxin 1 and its main photoproduct sulfoxide 2 were tested to evaluate acute toxicity to primary consumers typical of the aquatic environment: the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus and two crustaceans, Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus. Chronic tests comprised a producer, the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and a consumer, the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia.

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45371
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