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Archives of biochemistry and biophysics

Aromatic hydroxamic acids and hydrazides as inhibitors of the peroxidase activity of prostaglandin H2 synthase-2.


PMID 15464732

Abstract

The cyclooxygenase activity of the bifunctional enzyme prostaglandin H(2) synthase-2 (PGHS-2) is the target of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Inhibition of the peroxidase activity of PGHS has been less studied. Using Soret absorption changes, the binding of aromatic hydroxamic acids to the peroxidase site of PGHS-2 was examined to investigate the structural determinants of inhibition. Typical of mammalian peroxidases, the K(d) for benzhydroxamic acid (42mM) is much greater than that for salicylhydroxamic acid (475microM). Binding of the hydroxamic acid tepoxalin (25microM) resulted in only minor Soret changes. However, tepoxalin is an efficient reducing cosubstrate, indicating that it is an alternative electron donor rather than an inhibitor of the peroxidase activity. Aromatic hydrazides are metabolically activated inhibitors of peroxidases. 2-Naphthoichydrazide (2-NZH) caused the time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of both PGHS-2 peroxidase and cyclooxygenase activities. H(2)O(2) was required for the inactivation of both PGHS-2 activities and indomethacin (which binds at the cyclooxygenase site) did not affect the peroxidase inhibitory potency of 2-NZH. A series of aromatic hydrazides were found to be potent inhibitors of PGHS-2 peroxidase activity with IC(50) values in the 6-100microM range for 13 of the 18 hydrazides examined. Selective inhibition of PGHS-2 over myeloperoxidase and horseradish peroxidase isozyme C was increased by certain ring substitutions. In particular, a chloro group para to the hydrazide moiety increased the PGHS-2 selectivity relative to both myeloperoxidase and horseradish peroxidase isozyme C.

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