The Journal of biological chemistry

IRAK1 serves as a novel regulator essential for lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-10 gene expression.

PMID 15465816


Being one of the key kinases downstream of Toll-like receptors, IRAK1 has initially thought to be responsible for NFkappaB activation. Yet IRAK1 knock-out mice still exhibit NFkappaB activation upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, suggesting that IRAK1 may play other un-characterized function. In this report, we show that IRAK1 is mainly involved in Stat3 activation and subsequent interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene expression. Splenocytes from IRAK1-deficient mice fail to exhibit LPS-induced Stat3 serine phosphorylation and IL-10 gene expression yet still maintain normal IL-1beta gene expression upon LPS challenge. Mechanistically, we observe that IRAK1 modification upon LPS challenge leads to its modification, nuclear distribution, and interaction with Stat3. IRAK1 can directly use Stat3 as a substrate and cause Stat3 serine 727 phosphorylation. In addition, nuclear IRAK1 binds directly with IL-10 promoter in vivo upon LPS treatment. Atherosclerosis patients usually have elevated serum IL-10 levels. We document here that IRAK1 is constitutively modified and localized in the nucleus in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atherosclerosis patients. These observations reveal the mechanism for the novel role of IRAK1 in the complex Toll-like receptor signaling network and indicate that IRAK1 regulation may be intimately linked with the pathogenesis and/or resolution of atherosclerosis.

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