The Science of the total environment

Health and environmental testing of manganese exhaust products from use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl in gasoline.

PMID 15504525


This paper reviews recent research on the environmental effects of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), personal exposures to airborne Mn as a result of MMT use, chemical characterization of the manganese particulates emitted from the tailpipe and progress in developing a (PBPK) model for manganese in rodents. Recent studies show that manganese is emitted as a mixture of compounds with an average valence of about 2.2. The major products are sulfate, phosphate, and smaller amounts of oxides. Because only small amounts of Mn are used in gasoline (<18 mg Mn/gal) and less than 15% of the combusted Mn is emitted, soil along busy roads is not elevated in Mn, even after long-term use of MMT. A very large population-based study of manganese exposures in the general population in Toronto, where MMT has been used continuously for over 20 years, showed that manganese exposures were quite low, the median annual exposure was 0.008 microg Mn/m(3). A great amount of toxicological research on Mn has been carried out during the past few years that provides data for use in developing a PBPK model in rodents. These data add greatly to the existing body of knowledge regarding the relationship between Mn exposure and tissue disposition. When complete, the PBPK model will contribute to our better understanding of the essential neurotoxic dynamics of Mn.