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Journal of lipid research

Apple procyanidins decrease cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein secretion in Caco-2/TC7 enterocytes.


PMID 15576849

Abstract

Decrease of plasma lipid levels by polyphenols was linked to impairment of hepatic lipoprotein secretion. However, the intestine is the first epithelium that faces dietary compounds, and it contributes to lipid homeostasis by secreting triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during the postprandial state. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of apple and wine polyphenol extracts on lipoprotein synthesis and secretion in human Caco-2/TC7 enterocytes apically supplied with complex lipid micelles. Our results clearly demonstrate that apple, but not wine, polyphenol extract dose-dependently decreases the esterification of cholesterol and the enterocyte secretion of lipoproteins. Apple polyphenols decrease apolipoprotein B (apoB) secretion by inhibiting apoB synthesis without increasing the degradation of the newly synthesized protein. Under our conditions, cholesterol uptake, apoB mRNA, and microsomal triglyceride protein activity were not modified by apple polyphenols. The main monomers present in our mixture did not interfere with the intestinal lipid metabolism. By contrast, apple procyanidins reproduced the inhibition of both cholesteryl ester synthesis and lipoprotein secretion. Overall, our results are compatible with a mechanism of action of polyphenols resulting in impaired lipid availability that could induce the inhibition of intestinal lipoprotein secretion and contribute to the hypolipidemic effect of these compounds in vivo.

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