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The Journal of organic chemistry

Double N-arylation of primary amines: carbazole synthesis from 2,2'-biphenyldiols.


PMID 15651780

Abstract

The double N-arylation of primary amines with 2,2'-biphenylylene ditriflates was investigated for the synthesis of multisubstituted carbazoles. Palladium complexes supported by 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2'-methylbiphenyl or Xantphos [4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-9,9-dimethylxanthene] were found to be efficient catalysts for the reaction. The catalysts allow the use of anilines with an electron-donating or electron-withdrawing substituent and multisubstituted 2,2'-biphenylylene ditriflates as substrates. Ammonia equivalents, such as O-tert-butyl carbamate, are also employable as a nitrogen source to give the N-protected carbazoles which can easily give the corresponding N-unsubstituted carbazoles after deprotection. By using this methodology, a carbazole alkaloid, mukonine, is synthesized in 40% yield for five steps, in comparable efficiency to the recent precedents.

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