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International journal of developmental neuroscience : the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience

Ultraviolet- and short-wavelength cone contributions alter the early components of the ERG of young zebrafish.


PMID 15730883

Abstract

The electroretinogram (ERG) is a commonly used measure to examine retinal processing in both basic and clinical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the retinal mechanisms responsible for the developmental differences found in the zebrafish ERG waveform. The ERG of young zebrafish possesses a voltage-negative response to ultraviolet- and short-wavelength stimuli, but not to middle- and long-wavelength stimuli; the ERG of adult zebrafish does not possess this response component. ERGs were obtained from young zebrafish before and after the introduction of either aspartate, or a combination of APB (DL-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid) and PDA (cis-2,3-piperidinedicarboxylic acid) in order to suppress the responses of various types of retinal neurons. Log irradiance versus response amplitude functions of the ERG response to 200-ms stimuli of various wavelengths at various times following stimulus onset (70 and 120 ms) was derived as well as spectral sensitivity. Aspartate eliminated all voltage-positive responses regardless of stimulus wavelength; irradiance-response functions following aspartate were similar to the early responses of young control fish to ultraviolet- and short-wavelength stimuli. APB + PDA produced similar but not identical results as aspartate, suggesting that the combination of these agents does not completely eliminate all post-receptoral contributions to the ERG. Spectral sensitivity functions derived from aspartate-exposed subjects at various time measurements were dominated by contributions from ultraviolet- and short-wavelength-sensitive cone types. These wavelength-dependent ERG responses are similar to those found in humans with enhanced S-cone syndrome. Finally, ERG waveform differences across stimulus wavelength suggest that the circuitry of ultraviolet- and short-wavelength cone types is different to that of middle- and long-wavelength cone types in young zebrafish.