The Journal of cell biology

Activity-dependent and -independent nuclear fluxes of HDAC4 mediated by different kinases in adult skeletal muscle.

PMID 15767461


Class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) may decrease slow muscle fiber gene expression by repressing myogenic transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2). Here, we show that repetitive slow fiber type electrical stimulation, but not fast fiber type stimulation, caused HDAC4-GFP, but not HDAC5-GFP, to translocate from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in cultured adult skeletal muscle fibers. HDAC4-GFP translocation was blocked by calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) inhibitor KN-62. Slow fiber type stimulation increased MEF2 transcriptional activity, nuclear Ca(2+) concentration, and nuclear levels of activated CaMKII, but not total nuclear CaMKII or CaM-YFP. Thus, calcium transients for slow, but not fast, fiber stimulation patterns appear to provide sufficient Ca(2+)-dependent activation of nuclear CaMKII to result in net nuclear efflux of HDAC4. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC4-GFP in unstimulated resting fibers was not altered by KN-62, but was blocked by staurosporine, indicating that different kinases underlie nuclear efflux of HDAC4 in resting and stimulated muscle fibers.