Pharmaceutical research

In vitro and ex vivo intestinal tissue models to measure mucoadhesion of poly (methacrylate) and N-trimethylated chitosan polymers.

PMID 15771228


The adhesion of a range of polymers based on poly(2-(dimethylamino-ethyl) methacrylate (pDMAEMA) was assessed using human mucus-secreting and non mucus-secreting intestinal cell monolayers, HT29-MTX-E12 (E12) and HT29 monolayers, as well as excised non-everted intestinal sacs from rats. Differentiation of mucoadhesion from bioadhesion was achieved by pre-treatment with the mucolytic agent, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Adherence of pDMAEMA polymers was compared to that obtained with the mucoadhesive, N-trimethylated chitosan (TMC). The quantity of adherent coumarin 343-conjugated polymers to HT29, E12, and intestinal sacs was measured by fluorescence. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), light microscopy, and fluorescent microscopy were used to provide direct evidence. Measurements of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), permeability to FITC-dextran 4000 (FD-4), and the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were used to assess potential cytotoxicity of polymers. Adherence of unquaternized and of 10%, 24%, and 32% methyl iodide-quaternized pDMAEMA polymers was measured in E12, HT29, and sacs. All pDMAEMA polymers showed significantly higher levels of adhesion to mucus (mucoadhesion) than to epithelium (bioadhesion). Colocalization of pDMAEMA with mucus was confirmed in E12 by microscopy. TMC showed equally high levels of mucoadhesion as unquaternized and 24% quaternized pDMAEMA, but displayed higher levels of bioadhesion. pDMAEMA-based polymers demonstrated lower levels of adherence to E12 and rat sacs in the presence of NAC, whereas adherence of TMC was unchanged. pDMAEMA significantly decreased the permeability of FD-4 across E12 monolayers and sacs and was less cytotoxic in E12 than in HT29. In contrast, TMC increased the permeability of FD-4 across E12 and sacs and was less cytotoxic in E12 than in HT29. Human mucus-producing E12 monolayers can be used to assess polymer mucoadhesion and give similar data to isolated rat intestinal sacs. pDMAEMA displayed similar levels of mucoadhesion and lower levels of bioadhesion than a chitosan derivative and it was not cytotoxic. pDMAEMA decreased FD-4 flux in the presence of mucus, whereas TMC increased it. The combination of mucus and methacrylate polymers appears to increase barrier function of the apical membrane.

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HT29-MTX-E12, from human colon