Molecular pharmaceutics

Functional activity of a monocarboxylate transporter, MCT1, in the human retinal pigmented epithelium cell line, ARPE-19.

PMID 15804185


The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the functional activity of monocarboxylic acid transporter 1 (MCT1) on the human retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cell line, ARPE-19, and to evaluate whether the cell line can function as an in vitro screening tool for intravitreally administered drugs/prodrugs targeted to the MCT1 expressed in RPE. Uptake studies were carried out at 37 degrees C, for 30 s, with ARPE-19 cells. [(14)C]l-Lactic acid was selected as a substrate for this transporter. Uptake of [(14)C]L-lactic acid by ARPE-19 cells was found to exhibit saturable kinetics (K(m) = 3.1 +/- 0.6 mM and V(max) = 63.1 +/- 4.1 pmol/min/mg of protein). Monocarboxylic acids, such as benzoic acid, salicylic acid, and pyruvic acid, inhibited the uptake of [(14)C]L-lactic acid whereas di- and tricarboxylic acids, such as phthalic, succinic, and citric acids, did not demonstrate any inhibitory effect. Uptake was stereospecific where D-lactic acid was less effective in inhibiting [(14)C]L-lactic acid uptake than unlabeled L-lactic acid. ELISA indicated the expression of only MCT1, MCT4, and MCT8 isoforms by ARPE-19 cells. Increase in [(14)C]L-lactic acid uptake was observed as the uptake medium pH was lowered from 7.4 to 5.0. Moreover, inhibition of [(14)C]L-lactic acid uptake was observed in the presence of the protonophore 2,4-dinitrophenol. Uptake was significantly decreased in the presence of sodium azide, ouabain, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (pCMBA), N-ethylmaleamide, dithiothreitol, and p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (pCMBS). However, 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and L-thyroxine did not inhibit [(14)C]L-lactic acid. RT-PCR studies and sequence analysis of the PCR product confirmed the expression of MCT1 by ARPE-19 cells. Our results indicate that MCT1 is functionally active and is the only MCT isoform involved in the apical uptake of monocarboxylates by ARPE-19 cells. This cell line may thus be used as an effective screening tool for intravitreally administered drugs/prodrugs targeted toward MCT1 expressed on the RPE.

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4-Chloromercuribenzoic acid, cysteine active site modifier