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Human mutation

Population spectrum of ACADM genotypes correlated to biochemical phenotypes in newborn screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.


PMID 15832312

Abstract

Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is the most frequent inherited defect of fatty acid oxidation, with a significant morbidity and mortality in undiagnosed patients. Adverse outcomes can effectively be prevented by avoiding metabolic stress and following simple dietary measures. Therefore, prospective newborn screening (NBS) is being proposed for this condition. However, technical validation of MCADD population screening and assessment of its overall benefit require broadening of the as-yet-scarce knowledge of the MCADD genetic heterogeneity unraveled by NBS and its phenotypic consequences. Here, we describe the entire spectrum of sequence variations occurring in newborns with MCADD in the population of Bavaria, Germany, in relation to the biochemical phenotype. Among 524,287 newborns, we identified 62 cases of MCADD, indicating a birth incidence of 1 in 8,456. In all of the 57 newborns available for analysis, two alterations within the MCADD gene (ACADM) were identified. The most prevalent alteration c.985A>G (Lys329Glu) occurred in 27 (47%) newborns in the homozygous and in 18 (32%) in the heterozygous state (63% of defective alleles). The mild folding variant c.199T>C (Tyr67His) was identified in nine individuals, six of them being compound heterozygous with c.985A>G (Lys329Glu). Neither of the prevalent alterations were found in the remaining nine newborns. A total of 18 sequence variations were identified; 13 of them were novel: eight missense mutations, one nonsense mutation, two splice variants, and two small deletions. The remaining five were previously reported in MCADD patients. The ACADM heterogeneity uncovered was larger as anticipated from previous c.985A>G (Lys329Glu) carrier screening data. In addition, we show that MCADD appears to occur as frequently in Turkish newborns as in the native German population. Our data validate that biochemical NBS for MCADD is a highly specific procedure for disease detection, with the identification of a significant share of milder biochemical phenotypes, such as c.199T>C (Tyr67His). These show statistically lower acylcarnitine markers, allowing us to distinguish subgroups within the spectrum of ACADM sequence variations that correlate to biochemical MCADD disease expression. Our data might provide technical and medical guidance for decision making in the worldwide efforts to introduce MCADD population screening.