Cell and tissue research

FMRFamide-like immunocytochemistry in the brain and subesophageal ganglion of Triatoma infestans (Insecta: Heteroptera). Coexpression with beta-pigment-dispersing hormone and small cardioactive peptide B.

PMID 15947966


The distribution of FMRFamide (FMRFa)-like immunoreactivity (LI) was studied in the brain and subesophageal ganglion of Triatoma infestans, the insect vector of Chagas' disease. The neuropeptide displayed a widespread distribution with immunostained somata in the optic lobe, in the anterior, lateral, and posterior soma rinds of the protocerebrum, and around the antennal sensory and mechanosensory and motor neuropils of the deutocerebrum. FMRFa-immunoreactive profiles of the subesophageal ganglion were seen in the mandibular, maxillary, and labial neuromeres. Immunostained neurites were detected in the medulla and lobula of the optic lobe, the lateral protocerebral neuropil, the median bundle, the calyces and the stalk of the mushroom bodies, and the central body. In the deutocerebrum, the sensory glomeruli showed a higher density of immunoreactive processes than the mechanosensory and motor neuropil, whereas the neuropils of each neuromere of the subesophageal ganglion displayed a moderate density of immunoreactive neurites. Colocalization of FMRFa-LI and crustacean pigment-dispersing hormone-LI was found in perikarya of the proximal optic lobe, the lobula, the sensory deutocerebrum, and the labial neuromere of the subesophageal ganglion. The distribution pattern of small cardioactive peptide B (SCP(B))-LI was also widespread, with immunolabeled somata surrounding every neuropil region of the brain and subesophageal ganglion, except for the optic lobe. FMRFa- and SCP(B)-LIs showed extensive colocalization in the brain of this triatomine species. The presence of immunolabeled perikarya displaying either FMRFa- or SCP(B)-LI confirmed that each antisera identified different peptide molecules. The distribution of FMRFa immunostaining in T. infestans raises the possibility that FMRFa plays a role in the regulation of circadian rhythmicity. The finding of immunolabeling in neurosecretory somata of the protocerebrum suggests that this neuropeptide may also act as a neurohormone.