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International journal of toxicology

Effects of 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene on cytotoxicity and metabolic activity of type I astrocytes of rats.


PMID 15981740

Abstract

1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene (TNB) is a munitions chemical that causes gliovascular lesions in the brain stem of rats similar to those produced by thiamine deficiency and nitroaromatic compounds, including m-dinitrobenzene. To identify neuropathic indices of toxicity, the effects of varying concentrations (0 to 2 mM) of TNB on cytotoxicity and cellular metabolic activity were examined using cultured astrocytes from Fischer-344 rats. The cytotoxicity was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage into the culture medium. Astrocyte metabolic activity was assessed by measuring the conversion of a tetrazolium salt to a formazan product. Additionally, the effects of oxidative stress on cellular metabolic activity were determined by varying oxygen tension via alteration of culture media depth. In vitro, the toxic concentration 50% (TC50) of TNB, which induced cell death, was 16 microM following a 24-h exposure. The concentration of TNB that reduced cellular metabolic activity by 50% was 29 microM following a 24-h exposure. Varying the depth of the culture media did not influence the cellular metabolic activity in control or TNB-treated astrocytes. These results support the hypothesis that TNB induced neurotoxicity could partially be mediated via injury to astrocytes, a major component of the blood-brain barrier.

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