Mutation research

NAD(P)H oxidase/nitric oxide interactions in peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)alpha-mediated cardiovascular effects.

PMID 16054168


Activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)alpha and its protective role in cardiovascular function has been reported but the exact mechanism(s) involved is not clear. As we have shown that PPARalpha ligands increased nitric oxide (NO) production and cardiovascular function is controlled by a balance between NO and free radicals, we hypothesize that PPARalpha activation tilts the balance between NO and free radicals and that this mechanism defines the protective effects of PPARalpha ligands on cardiovascular system. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was greater in PPARalpha knockout (KO) mice compared with its wild type (WT) litter mates (130+/-10 mmHg versus 107+/-4 mmHg). L-NAME (100mg/L p.o.), the inhibitor of NO production abolished the difference between PPARalpha KO and WT mice. In kidney homogenates, tissue lipid hydroperoxide generation was greater in KO mice (11.8+/-1.4 pM/mg versus 8.3+/-0.6 pM/mg protein). This was accompanied by a higher total NOS activity (46+/-6%, p<0.05) and a approximately 3 fold greater Ca2+-dependent NOS activity in kidney homogenates of untreated PPARalpha WT compared with the KO mice. Clofibrate, a PPARalpha ligand, increased NOS activity in WT but not KO mice. Bezafibrate (30 mg/kg) reduced SBP in conscious rats (19+/-4%, p<0.05), increased urinary NO excretion (4.06+/-0.53-7.07+/-1.59 microM/24 h; p<0.05) and reduced plasma 8-isoprostane level (45.8+/-15 microM versus 31.4+/-8 microM), and NADP(H) oxidase activity (16+/-5%). Implantation of DOCA pellet (20mg s.c.) in uninephrectomized mice placed on 1% NaCl drinking water increased SBP by a margin that was markedly greater in KO mice (193+/-13 mmHg versus 130+/-12 mmHg). In the rat, DOCA increased SBP and NAD(P)H oxidase activity and both effects were diminished by clofibrate. In addition, clofibrate reduced ET-1 production in DOCA/salt hypertensive rats. Thus, apart from inhibition of ET-1 production, PPARalpha activation exerts protective actions in hypertension via a mechanism that involves NO production and/or inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase activity.

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