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Biosensors & bioelectronics

Quartz crystal microbalance bioaffinity sensor for biotin based on mixed self-assembled monolayers and metastable molecular complex receptor.


PMID 16085409

Abstract

A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor was proposed for the detection of small molecule biotin based on the mixed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of thiols on gold substrate and the bioaffinity difference between an analyte (biotin) and an analogue compound (HABA) in binding avidin. Avidin formed a metastable complex with 2-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)azo]benzoic acid (HABA) immobilized on the crystal surface. When the sensor contacts a sample solution containing biotin, the avidin was released from the sensor surface to form a more stable complex with biotin in solution. The frequency change recorded is proportional to the desorbed mass of avidin, and there is a clear mathematic relationship between the frequency change and the biotin concentration. The use of mixed SAMs allows the stable attachment of bioreceptor molecules on the QCM, and enhances the amount of the immobilized molecules on the QCM, as a longer "space arm" in the mixed SAMs makes this monolayer membrane more accessible to capture the immobilized molecules. The proposed bioaffinity sensor has nice response to biotin in the range of 0.017-1.67 microg/mL. The sensor could be regenerated under very mild conditions simply by reimmersion of the sensor into a biotin solution to desorb the surplus avidin.