Mutation research

In vivo cytogenetic effects of a commercially formulated mixture of cypermethrin and quinalphos in mice.

PMID 16185912


In vivo cytogenetic effects of commercially formulated cypermethrin (CYP, synthetic pyrethroid insecticide) and/or quinalphos (QUI, organophosphate insecticide), generally used in combination, were examined through chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronucleus test (MT) in mice. Male mice were orally gavaged to a single dose of CYP/QUI commercial mixture (22, 44 or 67 mg/kg b.wt.) for 24h (CA) or 48 h (MT). Based on the concentrations of active ingredients of CYP and QUI present in the test doses of CYP/QUI mixture, mice were orally exposed to 0.66, 1.32 and 2 mg/kg of CYP or 4.4, 8.8 and 13.4 mg/kg of QUI. For reference, a group of five mice was intraperitoneally administered to cyclophosphamide (20 or 50 mg/kg) or orally gavaged to peanut oil for vehicle control. Exposure of CYP/QUI mixture inhibited the mitotic index (MI) and induced CA in a dose-dependent manner at 24 h; however, significant (p<0.01 or 0.001) frequencies of CA were observed at 44 mg/kg onwards, whereas inhibition of MI at 67 mg/kg. Independent exposure of QUI at 8.8 mg/kg onwards also significantly (p<0.01 or 0.001) inhibited MI and induced CA, whereas CYP at 2 mg/kg (highest concentration in CYP/QUI mixture) inhibited MI significantly but failed to induce CA. Chromatid breaks and fragments found to be frequent aberrations in all the test groups. Treatment of CYP/QUI mixture also induced micronucleus formation dose-dependently at 48 h, yet statistically significant (p<0.001) frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) were observed at 44 mg/kg onwards. QUI (8.8 and 13.4 mg/kg) alone also induced significant frequencies of MNPCE, whereas frequencies of MNPCE observed with the CYP even at 2 mg/kg were comparable to that of vehicle control. Present findings indicate the genotoxicity potential of CYP/QUI mixture and suggest that the simultaneous presence of the toxic doses of CYP and QUI can lead to synergistic genotoxicity in mice and may pose mutagenic risk in human beings.

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Quinalphos, PESTANAL®, analytical standard