Soil dehydrogenase, phosphomonoesterase and arginine deaminase activities in an insecticide treated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) field.

PMID 16194560


Chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2 pyridyl phosphorothioate) 20 EC and Quinalphos (O,O-diethyl O-quinoxalin-2-yl phosphorothioate) 25 EC, were applied in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) field as seed treatment at 25 ml/kg and soil treatment at 4 l/ha in 1998 and 1999. The residues of these insecticides were monitored during the entire crop season and their effect on the soil enzymes dehydrogenase, phosphomonoesterase and arginine deaminase were studied. Ninety nine percent of chlorpyrifos residues were dissipated within 60 days from seed treated soil and 98% dissipation was observed in soil treated field for the same days. Its half lives in seed treated soil were 8 days and 7 days and in soil treated field were 9.2 days in and 7.5 days in 1998 and 1999 respectively. Dissipation of quinalphos in comparison to chlorpyrifos was slow both in seed treated and soil treated field. Eighty seven percentage to 92% dissipation of quinalphos residues were observed from seed treated soil and 98% residues were dissipated from soil treated field within 75 days. Its half lives in seed treated soil were 20 days and 18 days and in soil treated field, its half lives were 13 days and 17 days 1998 and 1999 respectively. Inhibition in dehydrogenase activity followed by recovery was observed both in seed and soil treatments with chlorpyrifos. An inhibition of 17.2% was estimated after 60 days of seed treatment in comparison to control. Dehydrogenase activity was significantly reduced to 63% after 15 days of quinalphos seed treatment in comparison to control in 1998. Similar trends were observed in 1999. A significant inhibition in dehydrogenase activity was observed after soil treatment both in 1998 and 1999. Phosphomonoesterase activities were significantly inhibited upto 25.2% as compared to the control, on the 15th day of chlorpyrifos seed treatment in 1998 and similarly, after one day of treatment in 1999. Quinalphos inhibited the phosphomonoesterase activity till the end of the experimental period in the soil treated fields, whereas recovered within 30-60 days of treatment in the seed treated fields. Arginine deaminase activity was significantly stimulated within one day after chlorpyrifos seed and soil treatments in both years. The activity was almost threefold higher on the 30th and the 15th day of soil treatment in 1998 and 1999, respectively. A temporary inhibition of arginine deaminase activity was observed after quinalphos treatment. It was observed that in most of cases insecticides have temporary inhibitory effect on soil enzymes. However, inhibition was smaller in seed treated soil than in direct soil treatment.

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Quinalphos, PESTANAL®, analytical standard