Journal of toxicology and environmental health

Dermal absorption of the phenoxy herbicide 2,4-D dimethylamine in humans: effect of DEET and anatomic site.

PMID 1629935


Percutaneous absorption of the 14C-ring-labeled phenoxy herbicide 2,4-D-amine (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid dimethylamine) was examined following topical applications of the herbicide to the palm and forearm of human volunteers. The effect of two vehicles (water and acetone) and the mosquito repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) on dermal absorption of 2,4-D-amine also was investigated. The total percent dermal absorption was calculated from the mean percent urinary recoveries and was not corrected for nonurinary excretion. The data revealed 14 +/- 4.5% (standard deviation) and 10 +/- 11.5% palmar absorption of 2,4-D-amine applied in water, with and without DEET, respectively, and 7 +/- 6.2% and 13 +/- 5.0% forearm absorption of the herbicide applied in water or acetone, respectively. Soap-and-water skin washes conducted at 24 h posttreatment removed up to 34% of the applied dose. Successive tape strips of skin taken at 24 h posttreatment demonstrated generally decreasing herbicide levels in the outer layers. The data bring into question the complete validity of the rhesus monkey model to predict human dermal absorption.

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N10612 2,4-D dimethylamine salt, analytical standard