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Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

Fumonisin mycotoxins in traditional Xhosa maize beer in South Africa.


PMID 16302789

Abstract

The production and consumption of home-brewed Xhosa maize beer is a widespread traditional practice in the former Transkei region of South Africa. HPLC determination of fumonisins B1 (FB1), B2 (FB2), and B3 (FB3) in maize beer samples collected in two magisterial areas, Centane and Bizana, showed a wide range of levels. All samples were positive for FB(1), with a mean level of 281 +/- 262 ng/mL and a range from 38 to 1066 ng/mL. Total fumonisins (FB1 + FB2 + FB3) ranged from 43 to 1329 ng/mL, with a mean of 369 +/- 345 ng/mL. Data on the consumption of home-brewed beer are not available. On the basis of published data for the consumption of commercial beer in South Africa, the fumonisin exposure in these districts among the consumers of maize beer was found to be well above the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 mug/kg of body weight/day set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

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