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Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry

Peroxynitrite-induced oxidation and nitration products of guanine and 8-oxoguanine: structures and mechanisms of product formation.


PMID 16352449

Abstract

Peroxynitrite induces DNA base damage predominantly at guanine (G) and 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) nucleobases via oxidation reactions. Nitration products are also observed, consistent with the generation of radical intermediates that can recombine with the (.)NO(2) formed during peroxynitrite degradation. The neutral G radical, G(.), reacts with (.)NO(2) to yield 8-nitroguanine (8-nitroG) and 5-nitro-4-guanidinohydantoin (NI), while for 8-oxoG we have proposed a reactive guanidinylidene radical intermediate. The products generated during peroxynitrite-mediated 8-oxoG oxidation depend on oxidant flux, with dehydroguanidinohydantoin (DGh), 2,4,6-trioxo-[1,3,5]triazinane-1-carboxamidine (CAC) and NO(2)-DGh predominating at high fluxes and spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), guanidinohydantoin (Gh) and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dioxo-imidazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (HICA) predominating at low fluxes. Both product sets are observed at intermediate fluxes. It is therefore important in model systems to ensure that the relative concentrations are well controlled to minimize competing reactions that may not be relevant in vivo. Increasingly sophisticated systems for modeling peroxynitrite production in vivo are being developed and these should help with predicting the products most likely to be formed in vivo. Together with the emerging information on the genotoxic and mutational characteristics of the individual oxidation products, it may be found that the extent of tissue damage, mutational spectra and, hence, cancer risk may change as a function of peroxynitrite fluxes as different product combinations predominate.