Molecular cell

Multiple processing body factors and the ARE binding protein TTP activate mRNA decapping.

PMID 16364915


Decapping is a key step in mRNA turnover. However, the composition and regulation of the human decapping complex is poorly understood. Here, we identify three proteins that exist in complex with the decapping enzyme subunits hDcp2 and hDcp1: hEdc3, Rck/p54, and a protein in decapping we name Hedls. Hedls is important in decapping because it enhances the activity of the catalytic hDcp2 subunit and promotes complex formation between hDcp2 and hDcp1. Specific decapping factors interact with the mRNA decay activators hUpf1 and TTP, and TTP enhances decapping of a target AU-rich element (ARE) RNA in vitro. Each decapping protein localizes in cytoplasmic processing bodies (PBs), and overexpression of Hedls produces aberrant PBs and concomitant accumulation of a deadenylated ARE-mediated mRNA decay intermediate. These observations suggest that multiple proteins involved in human decapping are important subunits of PBs and are activated on ARE-mRNAs by the protein TTP.