Mutation research

Assessment of genotoxicity of 14 chemical agents used in dental practice: ability to induce chromosome aberrations in Syrian hamster embryo cells.

PMID 16406784


To assess the genotoxicity of 14 chemical agents used as locally applied agents in dental practice, the ability of these agents to elicit chromosome aberrations was examined using Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. Chromosome aberrations in SHE cells were induced by treatment with three of eight chemical agents used as endodontic medicaments, i.e. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), formocresol (a mixture of formalin and tricresol), and sodium arsenite. The other five chemical agents, i.e. chloramphenicol, p-chlorophenol, p-phenolsulfonic acid, sodium hypochlorite, and tetracycline hydrochloride exhibited a negative response for chromosome aberrations. Assessment of three dyes used for disclosing dental plaque showed chromosome aberrations induced by basic fuchsin but not by acid fuchsin and erythrosine B. Three local anesthetics, lidocaine hydrochloride, prilocaine hydrochloride, and procaine hydrochloride, were negative for chromosome aberrations. Among the ten chemical agents that exhibited a negative response in the assay, p-chlorophenol, sodium hypochlorite, and erythrosine B induced chromosome aberrations in SHE cells when treated in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation. The percentages of cells with polyploidy or endoreduplication were enhanced by formocresol, sodium arsenite, p-chlorophenol, p-phenolsulfonic acid, sodium hypochlorite, erythrosine B, prilocaine hydrochloride, and procaine hydrochloride in the absence or presence of exogenous metabolic activation. Our results indicate that the chemical agents that had a positive response in the present study are potentially genotoxic to mammalian cells.

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4-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid solution, 65 wt. % in H2O