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The Journal of biological chemistry

EDEM3, a soluble EDEM homolog, enhances glycoprotein endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation and mannose trimming.


PMID 16431915

Abstract

Quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum ensures that only properly folded proteins are retained in the cell through mechanisms that recognize and discard misfolded or unassembled proteins in a process called endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). We previously cloned EDEM (ER degradation-enhancing alpha-mannosidase-like protein) and showed that it accelerates ERAD of misfolded glycoproteins. We now cloned mouse EDEM3, a soluble homolog of EDEM. EDEM3 consists of 931 amino acids and has all the signature motifs of Class I alpha-mannosidases (glycosyl hydrolase family 47) in its N-terminal domain and a protease-associated motif in its C-terminal region. EDEM3 accelerates glycoprotein ERAD in transfected HEK293 cells, as shown by increased degradation of misfolded alpha1-antitrypsin variant (null (Hong Kong)) and of TCRalpha. Overexpression of EDEM3 also greatly stimulates mannose trimming not only from misfolded alpha1-AT null (Hong Kong) but also from total glycoproteins, in contrast to EDEM, which has no apparent alpha1,2-mannosidase activity. Furthermore, overexpression of the E147Q EDEM3 mutant, which has the mutation in one of the conserved acidic residues essential for enzyme activity of alpha1,2-mannosidases, abolishes the stimulation of mannose trimming and greatly decreases the stimulation of ERAD by EDEM3. These results show that EDEM3 has alpha1,2-mannosidase activity in vivo, suggesting that the mechanism whereby EDEM3 accelerates glycoprotein ERAD is different from that of EDEM.