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Biochemistry

Comparison of the binding and reactivity of plant and mammalian peroxidases to indole derivatives by computational docking.


PMID 16503648

Abstract

The oxidation of melatonin by the mammalian myeloperoxidase (MPO) provides protection against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species. Indole derivatives, such as melatonin and serotonin, are also substrates of the plant horseradish peroxidase (HRP), but this enzyme exhibits remarkable differences from MPO in the specificity and reaction rates for these compounds. A structural understanding of the determinants of the reactivity of these enzymes to indole derivatives would greatly aid their exploitation for biosynthetic and drug design applications. Consequently, after validation of the docking procedure, we performed computational docking of melatonin and serotonin to structural models of the ferric and compound I and II (co I and co II, respectively) states of HRP and MPO. The substrates dock at the heme edge on the distal side, but with different orientations in the two proteins. The distal cavity is larger in MPO than in HRP; however, in MPO, the substrates make closer contacts with the heme involving ring stacking, whereas in HRP, no ring stacking is observed. The observed differences in substrate binding may contribute to the higher reaction rates and lower substrate specificity of MPO relative to those of HRP. The docking results, along with the previously measured heme-protein reduction potentials, suggest that the differentially lowered reaction rates of co II of HRP and MPO with respect to those of co I could stem from as yet undetermined conformational or electrostatic differences between the co I and co II states of MPO, which are absent in HRP.

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