Nucleic acids research

Dimerization and opposite base-dependent catalytic impairment of polymorphic S326C OGG1 glycosylase.

PMID 16549874


Human 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) is the major enzyme for repairing 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a mutagenic guanine base lesion produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). A frequently occurring OGG1 polymorphism in human populations results in the substitution of serine 326 for cysteine (S326C). The 326 C/C genotype is linked to numerous cancers, although the mechanism of carcinogenesis associated with the variant is unclear. We performed detailed enzymatic studies of polymorphic OGG1 and found functional defects in the enzyme. S326C OGG1 excised 8-oxoG from duplex DNA and cleaved abasic sites at rates 2- to 6-fold lower than the wild-type enzyme, depending upon the base opposite the lesion. Binding experiments showed that the polymorphic OGG1 binds DNA damage with significantly less affinity than the wild-type enzyme. Remarkably, gel shift, chemical cross-linking and gel filtration experiments showed that S326C both exists in solution and binds damaged DNA as a dimer. S326C OGG1 enzyme expressed in human cells was also found to have reduced activity and a dimeric conformation. The glycosylase activity of S326C OGG1 was not significantly stimulated by the presence of AP-endonuclease. The altered substrate specificity, lack of stimulation by AP-endonuclease 1 (APE1) and anomalous DNA binding conformation of S326C OGG1 may contribute to its linkage to cancer incidence.