The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

N1-(3-cyclohexylbutanoyl)-N2-[3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl]guanidine (UR-AK57), a potent partial agonist for the human histamine H1- and H2-receptors.

PMID 16554355


Both the histamine H1-receptor (H1R) and H2-receptor (H2R) exhibit pronounced species selectivity in their pharmacological properties; i.e., bulky agonists possess higher potencies and efficacies at guinea pig (gp) than at the corresponding human (h) receptor isoforms. In this study, we examined the effects of NG-acylated imidazolylpropylguanidines substituted with a single phenyl or cyclohexyl substituent on H1R and H2R species isoforms expressed in Sf9 insect cells. N1-(3-Cyclohexylbutanoyl)-N2-[3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl]guanidine (UR-AK57) turned out to be the most potent hH2R agonist identified so far (EC50 of 23 nM in the GTPase assay at the hH2R-Gsalpha fusion protein expressed in Sf9 insect cells). UR-AK57 was almost a full-hH2R agonist and only slightly less potent and efficacious than at gpH2R-Gsalpha. Several NG-acylated imidazolylpropylguanidines showed similar potency at hH2R and gpH2R. Most unexpectedly, UR-AK57 exhibited moderately strong partial hH1R agonism with a potency similar to that of histamine, whereas at gpH1R, UR-AK57 was only a very weak partial agonist. Structure/activity relationship studies revealed that both the alkanoyl chain connecting the aromatic or alicyclic substituent with the guanidine moiety and the nature of the carbocycle (cyclohexyl versus phenyl ring) critically determine the pharmacological properties of this class of compounds. Collectively, our data show that gpH1R and gpH R do not necessarily exhibit preference for bulky agonists (2) compared with hH1R and hH2R, respectively, and that UR-AK57 is a promising starting point for the development of both potent and efficacious hH1R and hH2R agonists.

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UR-AK57 dihydrochloride, ≥98% (HPLC)