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Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society

Renal osteodystrophy in children: a systemic disease associated with cardiovascular manifestations.


PMID 16624609

Abstract

The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States demands a closer evaluation of and attention to associated morbidities, and, particularly, the rising mortality related to cardiovascular disease in all age groups. Patients with CKD demonstrate an increased risk of coronary artery disease due to calcium deposition and subsequent arterial stiffening, in addition to left ventricular dysfunction with associated heart failure and arrhythmias. While clearly impacted by the traditional risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), patients with CKD are also affected by non-traditional risk factors, including calcium overloading related to aggressive management of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Recent data have shown that a substantial number of patients with CKD are deficient in vitamin D on a nutritional basis, in addition to the known decrease in the kidney-produced active metabolite during progressive CKD. Historically, vitamin D has been described as an endocrine hormone that regulates blood calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. It has become increasingly clear, through the recognition of a vitamin D receptor in most tissues, that vitamin D possesses functions well beyond calcium homeostasis, such that a deficiency may contribute to the development of CVD. In this brief review, the role of vitamin D activation through its vitamin D receptor will serve as an introduction to the magnitude of the nutritional deficits in children, adults, and those with CKD. As therapeutic entities in the management of renal osteodystrophy, vitamin D analogues play an important role in cardiovascular health that continues to evolve. Preliminary studies indicate that vitamin D therapy for control of secondary hyperparathyroidism may confer cardioprotection and reduce mortality. Attention to care of osteodystrophy in CKD must take into account heart health as well.