The Journal of biological chemistry

Mechanisms regulating tumor angiogenesis by 12-lipoxygenase in prostate cancer cells.

PMID 16638750


12-Lipoxygenase utilizes arachidonic acid to synthesize 12(S)-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, which is converted to the end product 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, an eicosanoid that promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis. Increased expression of 12-lipoxygenase has been documented in a number of carcinomas. When overexpressed in human prostate or breast cancer, 12-lipoxygenase promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in vivo. The present study was undertaken to delineate the mechanisms by which 12-lipoxygenase enhances angiogenesis. Herein we report that nordihydroguaiaretic acid, a pan inhibitor of lipoxygenases and baicalein, a selective inhibitor of 12-lipoxygenase, reduced VEGF expression in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Overexpression of 12-lipoxygenase in PC-3 cells resulted in a 3-fold increase in VEGF protein level when compared with vector control cells. An increase in PI 3-kinase activity was found in 12-LOX-transfected PC-3 cells and inhibition of PI 3-kinase by LY294002 significantly reduced VEGF expression. Northern blot and real time PCR analyses revealed an elevated VEGF transcript level in PC-3 cells transfected with a 12-lipoxygenase expression construct. Using a VEGF promoter luciferase construct (-1176/+54), we found a 10-fold increase in VEGF promoter activity in 12-lipoxygenase-transfected PC-3 cells. The region located between -88 and -66 of the VEGF promoter was identified as 12-lipoxygenase responsive using VEGF promoter-based luciferase assays. Further analysis with mutant constructs indicated Sp1 as a transcription factor required for 12-lipoxygenase stimulation of VEGF. Neutralization of VEGF by a function-blocking antibody significantly decreased the ability of 12-lipoxygenase-transfected PC-3 cells to stimulate endothelial cell migration, suggesting VEGF as an important effector for 12-lipoxygenase-mediated stimulation of tumor angiogenesis.