Plant physiology

Cytokinins and flower bud formation in vitro in tobacco: role of the metabolites.

PMID 16667316


Explants from flower stalks of Nicotiana tabacum L. were cultured on different cytokinins to induce flower bud formation. All cytokinins tested except zeatin and zeatin-riboside induced the same maximal number of flower buds. Benzyladenine, benzyladenosine, and dihydrozeatin were the most active compounds whereas isopentenyladenosine and isopentenyladenine acted at a 20-fold higher concentration. These data suggest that the active cytokinins bind to the same receptor with different affinities. The presence of benzyladenine in the medium was necessary only during the first 2 days of culture (initiation period). The equilibrium between benzyladenine and its conjugates (the riboside, glucoside, and nucleotides) after a 4-day pulse was independent of the benzyladenine concentration whether it was inductive or noninductive for bud formation. The level of all derivatives was proportional to the benzyladenine concentration in the medium. Isopentenyladenine was used as a competitive inhibitor of benzyladenine conjugation. Isopentenyladenine concentrations that were too low for bud formation led to a synergistic increase in bud number when applied together with benzyladenine. Isopentenyladenine decreased benzyladenine uptake and conjugation. In spite of the lower uptake, the concentration of free benzyladenine inside the explants was higher in the presence of isopentenyladenine than in its absence whereas the concentration of the 7-glucoside of benzyladenine was lower. It was concluded that the free cytokinin base is the main active compound.

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DL-Dihydrozeatin, ≥98.0% (HPLC)