Molecular nutrition & food research

Evidence of a new dechlorinated ochratoxin A derivative formed in opossum kidney cell cultures after pretreatment by modulators of glutathione pathways: correlation with DNA-adduct formation.

PMID 16671059


Ochratoxin A (OTA), a nephrotoxic mycotoxin probably implicated in human Balkan endemic nephropathy and associated urothelial tumors, induces renal carcinomas in rodents and nephrotoxicity in pigs. OTA induces DNA-adduct formation, but the structure of the adducts and their role in nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity have only partly been elucidated. In vivo, 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (MESNA) protects rats against OTA-induced nephrotoxicity but not against carcinogenicity, indicating two different mechanisms leading to nephrotoxicity or carcinogenicity. To better understand how DNA-adduct could be generated, opossum kidney cells (OK) have been treated by OTA alone or in presence of several compounds such as MESNA or N-acetylcysteine (another agent that, like MESNA, reduces oxidative stress by increasing of free thiols in kidney), buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) (an inhibitor of glutathione-synthase), and alpha amino-3-chloro-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid (ACIVICIN) (an inhibitor of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase). Cytotoxicity of OTA on OK cells was evaluated by applying the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. None of the listed agents diminished OTA cytotoxicity significantly; ACIVICIN even increases OTA cytotoxicity. In contrast, analysis of the HPLC profiles of OTA metabolites produced during these incubations indicated that the pattern, the quantity of metabolites, and the nature of the derivatives were modulated by these agents. Ochratoxin B (OTB), open-ring ochratoxin A (OP-OA), 4 hydroxylated OTA, 10 hydroxylated OTA, OTA without phenylalanine, OTB without phenylalanine, and a dechlorinated OTA metabolite could be identified by nano-ESI-IT-MS.