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Biochemistry

Effects of ligand binding and oxidation on hinge-bending motions in S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase.


PMID 16784229

Abstract

Domain motions of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (AdoHcy) hydrolase have been detected by time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements. Time constants for reorientational motions in the native enzyme were compared with those for enzymes where key residues were altered by site-directed mutation. Mutations M351P, H353A, and P354A were selected in a hinge region for motion between the open and closed forms of the enzyme, as identified in a previous normal-mode study [Wang et al. (2005) Domain motions and the open-to-closed conformational transition of an enzyme: A normal-mode analysis of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase, Biochemistry 44, 7228-7239]. In wild-type, substrate-free AdoHcy hydrolase (NAD(+) cofactor in each subunit), reorientational motions were detected on time scales of 10-20 and 80-90 ns. The faster motion is attributed to the domain motion, and the slower motion is attributed to the tumbling of the enzyme. The domain motion was also detected for the enzyme complexes E(NADH/3'-keto-adenosine) and E(NAD(+)/3'-deoxyadenosine) but was absent for the complex E(NADH/3'-keto-neplanocin A). The results indicate that AdoHcy hydrolase exists in equilibrium of open and closed structures, with the equilibrium shifted toward the more mobile open form for the substrate-free enzyme, E(NAD(+)), and for intermediates formed early in the catalytic cycle after substrate binding or formed late prior to product release, E(NAD(+)/ligand). However, the strong inhibitor neplanocin A upon binding undergoes oxidation, forming the complex E(NADH/3'-keto-neplanocin). For this complex, which is analogous to the enzyme complex with the central catalytic intermediate, the equilibrium was shifted toward the more rigid closed form. A similar pattern was observed for M351P and P354A mutants. In contrast, the domain motion could not be detected, either in the absence or presence of ligands or with the cofactor in either the oxidized or reduced state, for the H353A protein, suggesting that this mutation changes the hinge-bending dynamics of the enzyme.

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