Chemico-biological interactions

Comparative analysis of cytotoxic, genotoxic and antioxidant effects of 2,2,4,7-tetramethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and ethoxyquin on human lymphocytes.

PMID 16797511


2,2,4,7-Tetramethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (THQ) is a new synthetic compound with potential antioxidant activity. In this study, cytotoxic, genotoxic and antioxidant activities of THQ were studied on human lymphocytes with the use of the trypan blue exclusion assay, the TUNEL method, the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The activities of THQ were compared with those of a structurally similar compound-ethoxyquin (1,2-dihydro-6-ethoxy-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline, EQ), which is used in animal feeds as a preservative. Cytotoxic effects of THQ were observed after 1-h treatment at the concentration of 500 microM and after 24-h treatments at the concentrations of 250-500 microM. Although the micronucleus test did not reveal a genotoxic effect of THQ, in the comet assay the statistically significant increase in DNA damage was observed as compared with the control. On the other hand, the protection of human lymphocytes against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide suggests an antioxidant activity of THQ. The comparative analysis of THQ and EQ activities performed in these studies revealed that THQ was less cytotoxic and less genotoxic than EQ. Slightly lower antioxidant activity of THQ was also shown in the comet assay when it was used at the lower studied doses (1-5 microM), but for the highest one (10 microM) its efficiency was similar to that of EQ. In the micronucleus assay THQ was more effective than EQ in protecting the cultured lymphocytes from clastogenicity of H2O2. We believe that THQ is worthy of further detailed studies on its antioxidant properties to confirm its usefulness as a preservative.

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Ethoxyquin, ≥75% (capillary GC)
Ethoxyquin, PESTANAL®, analytical standard