Thermodynamic analysis of catalysis by the dihydroorotases from hamster and Bacillus caldolyticus, as compared with the uncatalyzed reaction.

PMID 16819826


Dihydroorotase (DHOase, EC from the extreme thermophile Bacillus caldolyticus has been subcloned, sequenced, expressed, and purified as a monomer. The catalytic properties of this thermophilic DHOase have been compared with another type I enzyme, the DHOase domain from hamster, to investigate how the thermophilic enzyme is adapted to higher temperatures. B. caldolyticus DHOase has higher Vmax and Ks values than hamster DHOase at the same temperature. The thermodynamic parameters for the binding of L-dihydroorotate were determined at 25 degrees C for hamster DHOase (deltaG = -6.9 kcal/mol, deltaH = -11.5 kcal/mol, TdeltaS = -4.6 kcal/mol) and B. caldolyticus DHOase (deltaG = -5.6 kcal/mol, deltaH = -4.2 kcal/mol, TdeltaS = +1.4 kcal/mol). The smaller enthalpy release and positive entropy for thermophilic DHOase are indicative of a weakly interacting Michaelis complex. Hamster DHOase has an enthalpy of activation of 12.3 kcal/mol, similar to the release of enthalpy upon substrate binding, rendering the kcat/Ks value almost temperature independent. B. caldolyticus DHOase shows a decrease in the enthalpy of activation from 12.2 kcal/mol at temperatures from 30 to 50 degrees C to 5.3 kcal/mol for temperatures of 50-70 degrees C. Vibrational energy at higher temperatures may facilitate the transition ES --> ES(double dagger), making kcat/Ks almost temperature independent. The pseudo-first-order rate constant for water attack on L-dihydroorotate, based on experiments at elevated temperature, is 3.2 x 10(-11) s(-1) at 25 degrees C, with deltaH(double dagger) = 24.7 kcal/mol and TdeltaS(double dagger) = -6.9 kcal/mol. Thus, hamster DHOase enhances the rate of substrate hydrolysis by a factor of 1.6 x 10(14), achieving this rate enhancement almost entirely by lowering the enthalpy of activation (delta deltaH(double dagger) = -19.5 kcal/mol). Both the rate enhancement and transition state affinity of hamster DHOase increase steeply with decreasing temperature, consistent with the development of H-bonds and electrostatic interactions in the transition state that were not present in the enzyme-substrate complex in the ground state.

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