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Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)

Short-term in vivo evaluation of novel vital dyes for intraocular surgery.


PMID 16829811

Abstract

To evaluate the staining characteristics and safety of potential new dyes for intraocular surgery in porcine eyes. Four dyes in different solutions (light green SF yellowish [LGSF]: 2%; copper(II) phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonic acid [E68]: 2% and 0.5%; bromophenol blue [BPB]: 2%, 1%, and 0.2%; and Chicago blue [CB]: 2% and 0.5%) were included in this investigation. All dyes were dissolved and diluted using balanced salt solution (BSS plus; Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX). After triamcinolone-assisted vitrectomy on 10 porcine eyes in vivo, the dyes were first injected into the air-filled vitreous cavity. After 1 minute, the dye was removed by irrigation with BSS, and the staining effect was graded by two examiners. After vitrectomy, the same dyes and concentrations were injected in the air-filled anterior chamber to stain the lens capsule of the same eye. After surgery, the eyes were enucleated and underwent fixation for light and electron microscopy. The animals were killed by injection of pentobarbital (50 mg/kg). For controls, each BSS plus alone and indocyanine green 0.5% were applied in one eye. On the retinal surface, bright staining of the retinal surface was seen after application of BPB 2% and 1%. The staining effect was less pronounced but still very good using E68 2%, and CB 2% and weak using BPB 0.2%, E68 0.5% and CB 0.5% as well as indocyanine green 0.5%. No staining of the retinal surface but of the vitreous was seen after application of LGSF 2%. The lens capsule stained very well with E68 2%, CB 2% and 0.5%, and BPB 2%, 1%, and 0.2% but not with LGSF. No histologic abnormalities were seen after the application in any eye after dye injection. No dye-related complications occurred during surgery. In this study, we identified three dyes with satisfying staining characteristics in both anterior and posterior segments. Because BPB stained the retinal surface and lens capsule at a low concentration (0.2%) with no signs of toxicity, this dye seems to be the most promising candidate for application in humans.