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Journal of applied microbiology

Targeting antioxidative signal transduction and stress response system: control of pathogenic Aspergillus with phenolics that inhibit mitochondrial function.


PMID 16834605

Abstract

The aim of this study was to show whether antioxidative response systems are potentially useful molecular targets for control of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Selected phenolic agents are used in target-gene-based bioassays to determine their impact on mitochondrial respiration. Vanillyl acetone, vanillic acid, vanillin, cinnamic acid, veratraldehyde, m-coumaric acid (phenolic agents to which Saccharomyces cerevisiae sod2delta mutant showed sensitivity), carboxin (inhibits complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain), strobilurins/antimycin A (inhibits complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) and fludioxonil/fenpiclonil [antifungals potentiated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)] were examined in A. fumigatus, A. flavus and S. cerevisiae. Individual or combined application of phenolics with inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration showed some of the phenolics effectively inhibited fungal growth. Target-gene bioassays were performed using a sakAdelta (MAPK deletion) strain of A. fumigatus and a complementation analysis using the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) gene (sodA) of A. flavus in the ortholog mutant, sod2delta, of S. cerevisiae. The results demonstrated that mitochondrial antioxidative stress system plays important roles in fungal response to antifungal agents tested. Antioxidative response systems of fungi can be an efficient molecular target of phenolics for pathogen control. Combined application of phenolics with inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration can effectively suppress the growth of fungi. Natural compounds that do not pose any significant medical or environmental risks could serve as useful alternatives or additives to conventional antifungals. Identifying the antioxidative response systems in other pathogens could improve methods for fungal control.

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W312401
Vanillylacetone, ≥96%, FG
C11H14O3