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Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes

Sorption of isoxaflutole diketonitrile degradate (DKN) and dicamba in unsaturated soil.


PMID 16923592

Abstract

When analyzing the sorption characteristics of weakly sorbing or labile pesticides, batch methods tend to yield a high margin of error attributable to errors in concentration measurement and to degradation, respectively. This study employs a recently developed unsaturated transient flow method to determine the sorption of isoxaflutole's herbicidally active diketonitrile degradate (DKN) and dicamba. A 20-cm acrylic column was packed with soils with varied texture that had been uniformly treated with 14C-labeled chemical. The antecedent solution herbicide in equilibrium with sorbed phase herbicide was displaced by herbicide-free water, which was infiltrated into the column. Sorption coefficients, Kd, were obtained from a plot of total herbicide concentration in the soil versus water content in the region where the antecedent solution accumulated. DKN Kd values were approximately 2-3 times (average Kd = 0.71 L kg-1) greater using the unsaturated transient flow method as compared to the batch equilibration method in clay loam (Kd = 0.33 L kg-1), but similar for the two methods in sand (0.12 vs 0.09 L kg-1) soils. Dicamba Kd values were 3 times greater using the unsaturated transient flow method as compared to the batch equilibration method in the clay loam soil (0.38 vs 0.13 L kg-1), however, the Kd values were the same for the two methods in the sand (approximately 0.06 L kg-1). This demonstrates that to determine sorption coefficients for labile hydrophilic pesticides, an unsaturated transient flow method may be a suitable alternative to the batch method. In fact, it may be better in cases where transport models have overpredicted herbicide leaching when batch sorption coefficients have been used.

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