Journal of cellular physiology

Prostaglandin E(2) protects human lung fibroblasts from cigarette smoke extract-induced apoptosis via EP(2) receptor activation.

PMID 16998801


Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) has been shown to have a strong cytoprotective effect, inhibiting apoptosis. In the present study, we evaluated whether PGE(2) has a protective effect on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced apoptosis in human lung fibroblasts. Apoptosis was assessed by various methods, including DNA content analysis. CSE (15%-20%) led to apoptosis and induced imbalance in favor of pro- over anti-apoptotic protein expression and activated caspases. PGE(2) blocked CSE-induced apoptosis and modulated the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and decreased the activation of caspases. This anti-apoptotic effect was mediated via EP(2) receptor activation as the EP(2) agonist butaprost mimicked PGE(2) activity and siRNA for the EP(2) receptor blocked it. An adenylyl cyclase inhibitor was found to abolish the PGE(2)-mediated cytoprotective effect. Correspondingly, c-AMP analogs blocked CSE-induced apoptosis. Consistently, the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 abolished PGE(2)-mediated protection. PGE(2) and butaprost phosphorylated Bad and KT-5720 blocked phosphorylation. These results suggest that PGE(2) inhibits CSE-induced apoptosis via EP(2) receptor activation and activation of PKA, which leads to an alteration in the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic factors. Through such a mechanism, PGE(2) may alter survival of cells in the smoke-exposed lungs, thus affecting the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke-induced disease.

Related Materials

Product #



Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

2′,5′-Dideoxyadenosine, ≥95% (HPLC), solid