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Journal of medical entomology

Role of kdr and esterase-mediated metabolism in pyrethroid-resistant populations of Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) in Brazil.


PMID 17017226

Abstract

The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), has become a problem for Brazilian cattle producers even though its introduction into Brazil is relatively recent. Failure to control this cattle pest is becoming a concern, and horn fly populations from several ranches from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul were surveyed for pyrethroid resistance. Susceptibility bioassays revealed that cypermethrin resistance was widespread and reached high levels in horn fly populations throughout the state, with resistance factors (RFs) ranging from 50.4 to 704.8. Synergist bioassays failed to detect a major role for esterases as a pyrethroid resistance mechanism in these populations, except for the highly pyrethroid-resistant Estrela do Oeste population (RF = 704.8). The kdr sodium channel gene mutation was not detected in eight of the 13 populations, but < 7% of individuals from four populations and 50% of the flies from Estrela do Oeste exhibited this mutation. Neither the superkdr sodium channel gene mutation nor a resistance-associated gene mutation in the HialphaE7 carboxylesterase were found in any of the fly populations. Although target site insensitivity (kdr) and esterase-mediated metabolism occur in horn fly populations from Mato Grosso do Sul state, it seems that they are not the major mechanism causing pyrethroid resistance in most of these populations.

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