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Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Rifapentine for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.


PMID 17083024

Abstract

Rifapentine is a recently approved antituberculosis drug that has not yet been widely used in clinical settings. Clinical data support intermittent use of rifapentine with isoniazid during the continuation phase of tuberculosis treatment. Patients with culture-positive, noncavitary, pulmonary tuberculosis whose sputum smear is negative for acid-fast bacilli at the end of the 2-month intensive treatment phase are eligible for rifapentine therapy. Rifapentine should not be used in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, given their increased risk of developing rifampin resistance with currently recommended dosages. Rifapentine is not currently recommended for children aged <12 years, pregnant or lactating women, or individuals with culture-negative or extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Rifapentine (600 mg) is administered once weekly with isoniazid (900 mg) during the continuation phase of treatment. This combination should only be given under direct observation. As with rifampin, drug-drug interactions are common, and regular patient monitoring is required. Ease of administration makes this regimen attractive both for tuberculosis-control programs and for patients.