Osteoarthritis and cartilage

Effects of glucosamine sulfate on intracellular UDP-hexosamine and UDP-glucuronic acid levels in bovine primary chondrocytes.

PMID 17320421


To analyze the effects of exogenously added glucose (Glc), glucosamine (GlcN) and glucosamine sulfate (GS) on the intracellular UDP-hexoses (UDP-Hex), UDP-N-acetylhexosamines (UDP-HexN) and UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) levels in bovine primary chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were incubated with different concentrations of Glc, GlcN and GS either in high- or low-glucose DMEM for up to 120min to analyze the intracellular levels of UDP-Hex, UDP-GlcA and UDP-HexN by a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis rate and aggrecan mRNA expression levels were quantified using (35)S-sulfate incorporation assay and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, respectively. The cells were cultivated for 2 days or 8 days before UDP-sugar analysis. Levels of UDP-HexN and UDP-GlcA were unchanged at 10microM concentration of GS in low-glucose DMEM, while addition of 1mM GlcN or GS in low-glucose DMEM for 10min increased UDP-HexN level. The highest intracellular level of UDP-HexN was reached at 30min after addition of 1mM GS to the cells. The intracellular contents of UDP-HexN and UDP-GlcA related to UDP-Hex were higher after prolonged cultivation of chondrocytes for 8 days compared with 2-day-old cultures. Aggrecan mRNA expression and GAG synthesis remained at control level after the cells were treated with 10, 100microM or 1mM of GS for 24h. Physiologically relevant level of GS could not increase the intracellular UDP-HexN and UDP-GlcA levels in bovine primary chondrocyte, while longer-time culture itself appeared to increase the intracellular UDP-HexN and UDP-GlcA levels.