Hearing research

Proteomic analysis of cisplatin-induced cochlear damage: methods and early changes in protein expression.

PMID 17321087


To identify early changes in protein expression associated with cisplatin ototoxicity, we used two dimensional-difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry to analyze proteins from P3 rat cochleae that were cultured for 3h with or without 1mM cisplatin. Replicate analysis of fluorescent images from six gels revealed significant (p<0.01) cisplatin-induced changes (greater than 1.5-fold) in expression of 22 cochlear proteins. These include increases in the expression of five proteins, four of which were identified as nucleobindin 1, a nuclear calcium signaling and homeostasis protein (2.1-fold), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C, an RNA processing protein (1.8-fold), a 55 kDa protein that is either endothelial differentiation-related factor 1 or alpha-6 tubulin (1.7-fold), and calreticulin, a calcium binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, 1.6-fold). The expression of 17 proteins was significantly (p<0.01) decreased by greater than 1.5-fold. These include ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor 1 (1.6-fold), RAS-like, family 12 (predicted), ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family 5 (4.5-fold), homologous the RAS family of GTPase signaling proteins (2.4-fold), and Protein tyrosine phosphatase domain containing 1 (predicted, 6.1-fold). We identified seven cochlear proteins with either smaller (1.2-1.5-fold) or less significant (p<0.05) cisplatin-induced changes in expression. Notably, heat shock 70 kDa protein 5 (Hspa5, Grp78, and BiP), an ER chaperone protein involved in stress response, decreased 1.7-fold. We observed changes consistent with phosphorylation in the level of isoforms of another ER stress-induced protein, glucose-regulated protein Grp58. Changes in cisplatin-induced protein expression are discussed with respect to known or hypothesized functions of the identified proteins.