Cancer research

IFN-gamma enhances the antimyeloma activity of the fully human anti-human leukocyte antigen-DR monoclonal antibody 1D09C3.

PMID 17409435


To investigate the therapeutic activity of the fully human anti-HLA-DR antibody 1D09C3 in multiple myeloma (MM), we reevaluated HLA-DR expression on CD138(+) cells, analyzed the capacity of IFN-gamma to up-regulate HLA-DR expression on MM cell lines, and tested the in vitro and in vivo activity of 1D09C3 alone or in combination with IFN-gamma. CD138(+)HLA-DR(+) cells were detected in 31 of 60 patients, with 15 of 60 patients having >/=20% CD138(+)HLA-DR(+) cells (median, 50%; range, 23-100). Because primary plasma cells cannot be efficiently cultured in vitro, we used a panel of MM cell lines with a dim/negative to bright HLA-DR expression to evaluate 1D09C3-induced cell death. Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining showed that 1D09C3-induced cell death correlated with constitutive HLA-DR expression. Induction of HLA-DR by IFN-gamma restored the sensitivity of HLA-DR dim cell lines to 1D09C3. In vivo, the combined IFN-gamma/1D09C3 treatment significantly increased the median survival of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice xenografted with KMS-11 cell line, compared with controls (147 versus 48 days, P