Journal of periodontal research

Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor reduces simvastatin-induced bone morphogenetic protein-2 and bone formation in vivo.

PMID 17451547


Simvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug, also stimulates oral bone growth when applied topically, without systemic side-effects. However, the mechanisms involved in vivo are not known. We hypothesized that bone morphogenetic protein-2, nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 are involved, based on prior in vitro evidence. A rat bilateral mandible model, where 0.5 mg of simvastatin in methylcellulose gel was placed on one side and gel alone on the other, was used to quantify nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase-2 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (via tissue extraction, enzyme activity or immunoassay), and to analyze the bone formation rate (via undecalcified histomorphometry). Cyclooxygenase-2 and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (NS-398 and L-NAME, respectively) were administered intraperitoneally. Simvastatin was found to stimulate local bone morphogenetic protein-2, nitric oxide and the regional bone formation rate (p < 0.05), whereas NS-398 inhibited bone morphogenetic protein-2 and reduced the bone formation rate (p < 0.05). These data suggest an association between simvastatin-induced bone morphogenetic protein-2 and bone formation in the mandibular microenvironment, and the negative effect of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors on bone growth.

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