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Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials

Protective effects of antioxidants on micronuclei induced by irradiated 9-fluorenone/N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine in CHO cells.


PMID 17455275

Abstract

9-Fluorenone (9F), the aromatic photosensitizer, is widely used as an initiator in visible-light (VL) cured resin systems. There is growing concern that 9F may produce genetic damage by inducing mutation. In this study, 9F in the presence or absence of reducing agent N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMT) with or without VL irradiation was analyzed for the induction of chromosomal aberrations indicated by micronuclei (MN) induced in CHO cells. Our data demonstrated that a dose-related increase in the frequency of MN and prolonged cell cycles in 9F with or without DMT in the presence or absence of VL irradiation (p < 0.05). The rank orders with respect to genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were found to be as follows: 9F/DMT +VL > 9F/DMT = 9F + VL > 9F. To determine whether oxidative stress could modulate MN induced by 9F/DMT with or without VL irradiation in CHO cells, cells were pretreated with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, and alpha-tocopherol. The pretreatment with antioxidants could diminish not only the prolonged cell cycle but also the decreased frequency of MN which is induced by 9F with or without DMT in the presence or absence of VL irradiation in CHO cells (p < 0.05). Our findings provide the evidences for the induction of MN by 9F in the presence or absence of DMT with or without VL irradiation in CHO cells, indicating clastogenic activity of 9F/DMT in vitro. These antioxidants act as the antagonists against the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of 9F/DMT. Thus, leaching photoinitiator and reducing agent might be contributing the sources of oxidative stress.