Biological responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants to the herbicide chlorotoluron in soils.

PMID 17462703


Chlorotoluron is a phenylurea herbicide that is widely used for controlling grass weeds in the land of cereal, cotton and fruit production. However, extensive use of this herbicide may lead to its accumulation in ecosystems, thus inducing the toxicity to crops and vegetables. To assess chlorotoluron-induced toxicity in plants, we performed the experiment focusing on the metabolic adaptation of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) to the chlorotoluron-induced oxidative stress. The wheat plants were cultured in the soils with chlorotoluron at concentrations of 0-25mg/kg. Chlorotoluron accumulation in plants was positively correlated with the external chlorotoluron concentrations, but negatively with the plant growth. Treatment with chlorotoluron induced the accumulation of O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2) in leaves and resulted in the peroxidation of plasma membrane lipids in the plant. We measured the endogenous proline level and found that it accumulated significantly in chlorotoluron-exposed roots and leaves. To understand the biochemical responses to the herbicide, activities of the antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were assayed. Analysis of SOD activity by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) revealed that there were three isoforms in the roots and leaves, but the isoforms in the tissues showed different patterns. Also, using the native PAGE, 6 isoforms of root POD and 10 in leaves were detected. The total activity of POD in roots was significantly enhanced. Activities of APX in roots and leaves showed a similar pattern. The CAT activities were generally suppressed under the chlorotoluron exposure.

Related Materials

Product #



Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

Chlortoluron, analytical standard
Chlortoluron, PESTANAL®, analytical standard